Many factors associated with city living increase our requirements for brain essential nutrients.
Air pollution is known to increase our risk of many chronic diseases like lung and heart problems. Oxidative stress is one of the key reasons that air pollution is so bad for our health. Essential functions in the brain are affected by our levels of oxidative stress. This includes regulating our mood , and our learning and memory by inhibiting neurogenesis or neuroplasticity. Antioxidants such as vitamins E and C and polyphenols such as anthocyanins help to neutralise the oxidative damage that is caused by air pollution in cities.
Depleted vitamin D stores are far more likely in urban areas due to our reliance on public transport and indoor working reducing the likelyhood of adequate sun exposure.